Incinerator: all about incinerators and incineration

Definition of the term "Incinerator"

An incinerator – is an equipment that specializes in the disposal and disposal of waste of various masses and nature. The main method used in the work is high-temperature decomposition. It is it that is optimally suited for the disposal of organic components with a different nature of origin. Further, in the secondary chamber, the formed gases are neutralized. The origin of the word is from French, and in the most accurate translation means "burning" or "stove to burn, melt." For the first time, such a word in this sense began to be used in 1520, which indicates the popularity and antiquity and provenness of the device.

How did incinerators appear?

Initially, the history of these devices lies in the household method - people accumulated waste, and because of the lack of a regular garbage collection system, they simply burned them. Positive domestic experience formed the basis of the industrial incinerator, which saw the world in 1876. It was patented by Alfred Fryer. Speaking about how the first device looked, it is worth noting the following nuances:

  • stationary building;
  • the presence of many cells-furnaces, which were combined in pairs;
  • closed brick structure;
  • a flat top through which waste could be dumped.

The first industrial incinerator was used exclusively for municipal waste.

The prototype of the modern device belongs to Horsfall, who made a model on a grate type. It was built in Bradford over 120 years ago and was very similar to a modern incinerator in principle: the waste did not fall into the furnace, but onto the grate that moved in the combustion chamber. This principle has proved itself positively due to the speed of combustion and the release of the optimal amount of gases, therefore it is still used today in municipal solid waste incinerators.

Incinerator furnaces: main types

Incinerator plants vary according to the type of furnace they are based on.

1. Hearth oven as a base

Material loading is provided by a special device and the model stands out for its compactness. Its productivity is in the range of 50–200 kg/h. They can be additionally equipped with a stirrer mechanism so that the waste burns better.

2. Based on rotary kiln

The central drum mechanism is made in a horizontal form, where the waste falls automatically. The drum itself is slightly tilted to improve the quality of the combustion process. It is important that the temperature is maintained at 850-950 degrees.

3. On the basis of a cyclone-vortex furnace

It is considered the most effective device for the disposal of gaseous and liquid waste, because the volume is small, and the power is high. TB or other types of waste are fed into the cyclone reactor by a pump, where the temperature is about 1500 degrees. In case of formation of salts, they enter the decalcification chamber.

4. On the basis of the device of the lattice according to the type of spikelet

The most popular type of ovens, where the waste is sent to the grate layer that is spinning. Due to the movement of the grates, a better combustion is provided than in a hearth furnace.

5. Fluidized bed

It is used to disinfect silt-type sediments, in particular at sewage treatment plants.

6. Ship type incinerator

It operates on the basis of a hearth type furnace and fully meets a number of characteristics for such mechanisms. They are specified in Resolution MEPC75/40 of 1997.

Инсинератор – это установка, специализирующаяся на утилизации и обезвреживании отходов разной массы и природы. Основной метод, используемый в работе, – высокотемпературное разложение.

What are incinerators used for?

The main task of the installations is waste disposal. So, they are used not only in the work of utilities, but also in other areas:

  • livestock farms;
  • poultry farms;
  • public and private clinics, offices, beauty salons;
  • pharmaceutical production;
  • wood processing factories;
  • forensic services products.

It is indicative: there are practically no restrictions in the list of wastes that can be neutralized in such a thermal way. A significant advantage in the use of incinerators is the possibility of recycling waste in different aggregate states: liquid, pasty, solid and loose.

Are there any requirements for incinerators?

Yes, and they are spelled out by the European Parliament and the EU Council on Industrial Emissions. The main requirements spelled out in the document are not only the coordination of industrial emissions, but also the development of devices for more efficient and environmentally friendly combustion. In the Russian Federation, there are also certain emission restrictions regarding waste incineration. They are specified in the Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology, adopted in 2019.

Recommendations for choosing incinerators

  1. 1. First you need to decide on the type and volume of waste to be disposed of, then the company you contact will be able to choose the most suitable installation for your needs.
  2. 2. Analyze the quality of materials used for lining and body.
  3. 3. Are there permits for the equipment.
  4. 4. Does the company offer transportation and commissioning.
  5. 5. Price issue.

The company "Eco-Spectrum" has all the necessary permits and certificates, and also manufactures and supplies equipment for recycling for Russian and foreign customers.

The principle and cyclical functioning of the incinerator?

  1. 1. First, the installation is heated to a temperature according to the regulations, taking into account the nature of the waste and the volume of the chamber.
  2. 2. Perform loading automatically or manually.
  3. 3. Transportation of formed gases to the afterburner.
  4. 4. Afterburning gases in the chamber at temperatures up to 900 degrees for 2 seconds.
  5. 5. Next, the ash is unloaded:
    • at the landfill;
    • in the manufacturing or construction line.

Environmental assessment

Prior to the start of the enterprise's activities with waste, which is likely to have a negative impact on environmental objects: emissions into the atmosphere, soil pollution, disposal of dirty wastewater, noise impact, etc., in accordance with Article 9 of the Federal Law-N89 dated 02.07. and Consumption” the company must have a License with all compliance with the requirements of the Federal Law-99 dated 04.05.2011 “On Licensing Certain Types of Activities”. The list of such activities also includes activities for the neutralization and disposal of waste.

The list of required documents for obtaining a license for handling hazardous waste in accordance with the Federal Law includes an environmental impact assessment, which takes into account all physical and chemical factors affecting the environment. Further, independent experts of regulatory authorities (Rosprirodnadzor) check the completeness and reliability of the information provided, conduct an impact assessment and issue an opinion and permission or refusal to conduct activities. The materials of the preliminary impact assessment are subject to mandatory publicity with the participation of the public, where they answer all questions of concern and take into account the wishes and comments on the organization of the facility.

The form of the checklist of the Licensee by the supervisory authorities, as well as an item from the list of documents for the license, contains a requirement for a positive conclusion by Rosprirodnadzor on the technology used in accordance with Federal Law No. 174-FZ of November 23, 1995 (as amended of May 1, 2022) "On Environmental Expertise"

We offer various types of incinerators with dry and wet gas cleaning systems for private and municipal enterprises at an affordable price with a guarantee. A professional approach will help you make the right and accurate choice.