Waste sorting complex: how and why the enterprise operates

The problem of accumulation of municipal waste today is acutely marked all over the world, in connection with which the sphere of waste management is actively developing both technologically and legislatively. In Russia, one of the initiatives of the National Project "Ecology", aimed at protecting the environment, is the disposal and processing of waste, according to which, by 2030, 100% waste sorting will be ensured, while the amount sent for disposal will be halved. More than 30% of municipal waste will be sent for processing, from which valuable raw materials will be produced. Waste management facilities are being created throughout the country in order to solve the set tasks and achieve the results of the initiative of the National Ecology Project.

One of these facilities is a waste sorting complex, which allows you to select the following types of secondary raw materials from the total mass of MSW:

  1. paper and cardboard waste - packaging containers and cardboard, sheet and roll paper, etc. - production of packaging containers, building materials;
  2. waste polymers - plastic bottles and cans, bottles for shampoos and cosmetics, polyethylene films, etc. - the manufacture of agricultural products, packaging, products used in urban areas for landscaping;
  3. wood waste - wooden panels, floor boards and lathing, doors and jambs, fiberboards, furniture structures, landscape gardening, etc. - production of packaging containers, building materials;
  4. scrap of non-ferrous metals - wires, spent household equipment - recycling;
  5. aluminum scrap - cans for drinks, cans, packaging of paintwork and building materials, etc. - recycling;
  6. ferrous metal scrap - metal structures, scrap metal, parts of machine tools, machines and equipment - recycling;
  7. cullet - broken bottles, crystal, window, display and door glass, etc. - manufacturing of products used in the municipal economy, recycling;
  8. rubber waste - the manufacture of waterproofing materials, products used in the municipal economy;
  9. textile waste - production of regenerated fiber;
  10. food waste, waste from fruit and vegetable bases, wholesale markets, etc. - production of feed protein, environmentally friendly fertilizer, industrial soil .

The MSW sorting technology at the first stage is a combination of manual and mechanized sorting, followed by pressing or grinding the resulting secondary raw materials. The technological line of waste sorting complexes may include various equipment and separating units, namely:

  • feeding belt-chain conveyor for loading waste onto the sorting line;
  • cabin of preliminary sorting for selection of large fractions of secondary materials;
  • drum screen for separation of organic waste and materials with a fraction size smaller than the screen cell;
  • belt conveyors for material transportation;
  • main sorting booth for selection of secondary materials, with an increase in the number of posts of the main sorting, the quality of selection increases;
  • magnetic and eddy current separators for metal selection;
  • hydraulic press to reduce the volume of selected secondary material;

To improve the quality of selection and transition from manual sorting to automatic, additional equipment can be integrated into the waste sorting complex:

  • packet breaker;
  • optical separator;
  • air separator;
  • robot sorter;
  • ballistic separator;
  • shredder.

The capacity of waste sorting complexes manufactured by Eco-Spectrum varies from 20 to 600 thousand tons per year, and depending on the goals that need to be achieved in the operation of the complex, the company carries out an individual design of a complete technological line for sorting municipal waste.

The company "Eco-Spectrum" will solve the tasks and allow you to design, manufacture and set up a waste sorting complex.