Frequently asked Questions

  • What is the fuel consumption during thermal neutralization? 1

    Influencing factors on the amount of fuel for waste incineration           

               The process of thermal neutralization and disposal of waste is carried out with constant or temporal use of fuel. Waste incineration is also possible without the use of fuel under conditions of constant continuous supply of waste to the main chamber. In this paper we’re going to find out what factors effect on fuel consumption and the functional mode of burners.

               The first factor is what type of fuel will be used. There are several types of fuel used for waste incineration: diesel, gas, waste oils, fuel oil, etc. The calorific value of one type of fuel will be different from another. For instance, natural gas is more calorific compared to diesel, which means that gas consumption will be less than diesel consumption.

               The second factor affecting the amount of fuel consumption is the calorific value of the waste. The higher the calorific value of the waste, the less fuel will be required for combustion (high-calorific waste is capable of sustaining self-combustion). To minimize or reduce to zero the consumption of fuel required for evaporation of water in the waste, heating to set temperatures and the cost of heat loss, possibly by the heat released by the waste. For example, the calorific value of contaminated plastic is more than 6000 kcal/kg, the calorific value of food waste is about 800 kcal/kg. So, unlike food waste, plastic can be burned without using fuel.

               The third factor is the amount of air supplied to the main and secondary chambers. If the air is supplied without preheating, i.e., taken directly from the environment, that requires a significant amount of heat to heat it up to the preset temperatures. Consequently, the more air oxygen is required to burn the waste, the greater the fuel consumption for heating it. The more organic compounds in the composition of the waste, the more amount of air for waste incineration will be required. For example, the burning of 1 kg of contaminated plastic requires stoichiometrically about 9 kg of air, the burning of 1 kg of food waste requires about 2 kg of air. However, plastic is more calorific and the heat released during its combustion is sufficient to compensate the temperature loss.

             The fourth factor is the size of equipment for thermal treatment and disposal of waste. The larger the unit, the more fuel will be needed to heat up the main and secondary chambers. For instance, there will be 4 kg/h of fuel consumption because of heat losses on the pressure vessel walls of the HURIKAN 150 incinerator, and 15 kg/h for the HURIKAN 1000 incinerator. At the same time, when the incinerator enters the operating mode, i.e., full heating and maintaining of a constant continuous supply of waste to the main chamber, the effect of size of equipment on the amount of fuel consumption is reduced due to different productivity: the more waste is burned per unit of time, the more heat is released, therefore, a more productive plant generates more heat.

             Thus, the amount of fuel consumption for waste incineration is variable, and depends on a number of factors. The fuel consumption can also be minimized or reduced to zero.

  • What is the difference between Hurikan and Volkan installations? 2

    Eco-Spectrum produces three models of incinerators, which are divided into chambered incinerators of Volkan series, chambered incinerators of Hurikan series and rotary incinerators of Hurikan series. The fundamental difference between chamber incinerators and Hurikan is the productivity and volume of incinerated waste. Volkan series differ in loading volume, while the performance does not change (from 45 to 75 kg per hour), and the index in the name of the incinerators (150, 200, 750 ...) indicates the volume of a single load. Hurikan series are characterized by high performance, achieved due to the presence of grates and the volume of the afterburning chamber of gases. The grate system developed by our company allows to increase the area of combustion of waste, thereby achieving high productivity. Combustion system is designed in our company. The index of incinerators of Hurikan series indicates the performance of the incinerator (70, 150, 300 ...).

    Rotary Hurikan series are a rotating lined drum that allows the disposal of liquid waste, such as oil sludge, waste oils, etc., in addition to solid waste. Due to rotation, the waste is mixed, thanks to which a certain productivity is achieved on certain types of waste, which a chamber furnace cannot provide.


  • Is the use of incinerators environmentally safe? 3

    The technology of waste and waste gases neutralization after waste neutralization has been approved by a positive conclusion of the state expertise of the federal agency of Rosprirodnadzor. Eco-Spectrum regularly analyzes the ash obtained after waste disposal, as well as testing of equipment for emissions at customers' operating sites is carried out on an ongoing basis.

    Incinerator installations designed by our company meet all international standards of environmental and sanitary safety. Environmentally friendly emissions are provided by correctly calculated gas afterburning chambers and gas filtration systems. Thermal neutralization of exhaust gases in the afterburning chamber of gases occurs at temperatures exceeding 1100 degrees, which meets all international standards and ensures effective burning of dioxins and furans.

    Environmental policy

  • How cheap is it to burn waste? 4
    The prime costs of thermal waste treatment are fuel for combustion. A multi-layer lining developed by our specialists, and automated control system significantly lower the fuel consumption in comparison with analog equipment. The automated control system of the incinerator allows to cut fuel costs by burning waste.

    The burner is only needed for firing the waste, after that the fuel supply is automatically turned off by the program and logistics controller (PLC) and the air is supplied to the combustion chamber to support waste burning, while ceramic insulation layer and concrete lining perfectly keep the temperature inside, preventing heat loss, and effectively save fuel.

    In case of continuous supply of waste in small portions to the main chamber, the generated heat can be sufficient to compensate for the costs of heat loss (evaporation of water, heating of waste and air), it makes possible to minimize or to set burners’ fuel consumption to zero. And this is the reason why costs under condition of proper operation of the equipment are minimized. And if we take into account the possibility of obtaining a secondary, economic and energy resources, the waste incineration process can become cost-effective.
  • How can the thermal energy obtained from waste incineration be used? 5
    A huge amount of thermal energy is released at the process of waste burning, and it can be reused due to additional equipment manufactured by our company - a heat recovery system. The received heat energy can be used for premises and water heating.
  • Why is your equipment more expensive than your competitors? 6

    First of all, the Eco-Spectrum acts as an expert in solving waste disposal issues, has extensive experience in the production and installation of incinerators, as well as a large number of projects in the field of equipment development and design.

    The company's engineers, in cooperation with the company's environmentalists, as well as with university researchers, develop non-standard solutions for individual orders of their customers.

    An absolutely open approach to the client: we never overestimate performance indicators, but work to improve quality, investing all available resources in professional development, personnel development, training of leading engineers, due to which our developments are among the most high-tech in the industry.

  • What are advantages of incineration compared to other methods of waste neutralization? 7
    The worldwide challenge of waste management is the rational recycling and the maximum waste reduction. The solution to this problem must be comprehensive.
    For example, amount of municipal solid waste generation in Russia is about 63 million tons / year, even if to use the most modern and efficient waste sorting complexes, there will always be waste that cannot be reused (tailings).

    In case the benchmark indicators of the National Project “Ecology” are reached, the amount of tailings for disposal will be more than 30 mln. tons per year. This number does not solve the issue of waste accumulation and landfill overusing, but only slightly extends their operational life. At the same time, the environmental pollution issues, as a result of the negative impact of landfills, remain unresolved and the energy resource or MSW are unconverted to energy.  

    Currently, the incineration is the most effective way to reduce the waste disposal level of tailings to zero amount of waste, it allows to neutralize waste the safest way for environment, while reducing its amount and get secondary material and energy resources, turn waste into raw materials and generate heat and electricity.
    Our company has developed and successfully implemented these projects by production of secondary material resources, such as waste into heat for industrial premises and using ash as an industrial material.
  • What are the advantages of incineration relative to other disposal methods? 8
    The main problem around the world in working with waste is rational recycling and maximum reduction of waste volume. It is necessary to approach the solution of this problem comprehensively. 30% of the volume of waste generated worldwide can be recycled, this can be achieved using modern waste sorting methods, but no matter how modern and efficient the waste sorting complex is, there will always be waste that cannot be recycled (tailings) and at the moment the most effective way is incineration, which allows you to get rid of waste as cleanly as possible, while reducing its volume by 20 times.
  • What can be burned? 9
    By incineration, it is possible to neutralize waste with organic inclusions that can be decomposed when exposed to temperatures. The list of waste is presented in the State Environmental Report on the equipment and is based on the legislative framework.
  • Brick or concrete – which lining to choose? 10

    Disadvantages of bricks:

    • frequent repairs;
    • it falls out during operation, and untimely repairs lead to the burnout of the metal frame of the equipment;
    • despite the high refractory properties, the brick material has a high thermal conductivity, which entails large heat losses (it is impossible to apply an insulating layer in the brick lining, which leads to fuel overspending to constantly maintain high temperatures in the chamber);
    • on the surface of the incinerator, the temperature can reach 80-100 degrees or more, which is unsafe for the installation operator and reduces the service life of the equipment due to the constant thermal load on the frame.

    Advantages of concrete:

    • equipment operation without repair for at least 5 years;
    • due to the technology of using an insulating layer and a metal frame, a huge amount of heat is saved, fuel costs for maintaining are minimized, which makes the cost of waste disposal low.;
    • at high temperatures in the furnace (and it reaches more than 1000 degrees), the outer surface of the incinerator does not exceed 50-60 degrees, which ensures the safety of the operator during operation;
    • thanks to the principle technology of monolithic filling of the lining, maximum mechanical stability is ensured during transportation, movement, relocation and, in fact, operation.
  • What types of fuel can the equipment run on? 11
    In the production of our incinerators, we use a high-quality burner device of Italian production EcoFlam, which can use fuel as: diesel, natural gas, associated gas, waste oil (not suitable for regeneration), fuel oil. Also, the burners can be dual-fuel (from the above). If necessary, we can consider analogs of burner devices. The more powerful the pumps are needed (for example, for waste oil, fuel oil), the more expensive the burner device is, but it can pay off faster if the fuel source is available.
  • What are the main nuances of safe operation of the equipment? 12
    During the operation of the incinerator installation, it is necessary to follow the equipment operation manual immaculately, and also observe safety precautions. Undoubtedly, the most important point is a competently selected staff who will understand the physical processes taking place in the equipment, monitor its integrity and good technical condition.

    When incinerating different types of waste, it is necessary to take into account the morphological composition of the waste, the water content and gas formation during combustion. Experimentally, in small batches, select the optimal volume of the maximum load of the incinerator in order to avoid excessive ignition, smoke formation, and an uncontrolled set of temperatures.
  • What are threshold limit value with gas cleaning system? 13
    The concentration of pollutants at the outlet of the gas cleaning system depends on the initial parameters of primary emissions from the equipment and the implemented technology solutions. The use of various technology solutions, solutions and sorbents in gas cleaning can provide purification of emissions with up to 99.9% efficiency it makes possible to bring the level of emissions to the maximum permissible requirements for emissions in accordance with Best Available Technique and Information and Technical Reference book 9-2020.
  • Is it possible to change the lining in the incinerator or cremator? 14
    The linings of the main chamber and the gas afterburning chamber can be changed depending on the waste, the climatic conditions of use of the thermal waste disposal unit and other factors. All design changes, first of all, are coordinated with the customer. The site presents basic models of incinerators and cremators, on request, the furnace for recycling and neutralization of waste can be modified depending on the modes and operating conditions.
  • When is it necessary to reduce the SPZ (Sanitary Protection Zone)? 15
    - there are complaints from residents about an unpleasant smell, smog, noise.
    - due to the acceleration of urbanization, residential buildings, educational institutions, sports complexes and other zones of the SPZ are being built within the SPZ.
    - adjustment of concentrations of pollutants to ensure the safety of workers (sometimes the need to reduce concentrations may arise from the results of clinical and hygienic studies of working conditions of personnel).
  • What MPC will be obtained after the introduction of the gas purification system? 16
    The concentration of pollutants at the outlet of the gas purification system depends on the initial parameters of primary emissions from equipment and implemented technological solutions. The use of various solutions and fillers in gas cleaning can provide cleaning of emissions with a coefficient of 0.9.
  • Do I need a license to burn waste generated in my own production and use the generated heat? 17
    According to the law "On Licensing of Certain Types of Activities", activities for the collection, transportation, processing, disposal, neutralization, disposal of waste of hazard classes I-IV are subject to licensing. Thus, the planned activity falls under the definition of "disposal" and is subject to licensing.
  • Which category of land is suitable for the disposal site? 18
    According to the classifier of types of permitted use of land plots (appendix to the Order of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation No. 540), the placement of waste disposal facilities should be suitable for the intended purpose of "Special Activity" Code 12.2. If the planned site does not correspond to the intended purpose, the transfer of land and land plots is allowed in cases defined by legislation.
  • How to choose an incinerator? 19

    When choosing an incinerator, it is necessary to follow several mandatory rules.
    In fact, we need to calculate two main parameters that we need to burn a particular type of waste. Incineration rate and waste fraction (size at one-time loading).

    1. Type of waste (biological, wood, oil-containing, medical, etc.). The required burning rate depends on this parameter. Each waste burns differently!
    2. The volume of waste per day in kilograms. This parameter also affects the burning rate.
    3. Working shift in hours.
    4. The size of the waste fraction in centimeters. This parameter will determine the required size of the boot window.

    Here is an example of how you can choose an incinerator for a particular waste.

    1. Type of waste - Biological (gastrointestinal)
    2. Volume per day - 1000 kg
    3. Working shift - 24 hours
    4. Size - 1m3 = 0.7 kg of gastrointestinal tract

    It turns out that in this case VOLKAN 750, VOLKAN 500. 1000 kg / 24 = 42 kg per hour + Fraction volume and morphology of waste (the gastrointestinal tract is very wet waste and a more productive incinerator is needed) is suitable for us.

    You can always contact our specialists for detailed advice and assistance in the selection of equipment by calling 8 (800) 555-59-12 (in Russia for free).

  • Is it possible to dispose of chemical waste in an incinerator? 20

    There is no single way to destroy chemical waste, there are 6 ways of disposal, which are used depending on the composition of the scrap.

    1. Neutralization makes it possible to process harmful waste into safe ones due to various chemical reactions. For example, the hydrolysis of alkalis, which is applicable in the neutralization of poisons and pesticides.
    2. Thanks to chlorination with oxidation, it is possible to neutralize substances by 99.99%. The procedure takes place using calcium, chlorine, sodium and hydrogen peroxide necessarily in water.
    3. Alcoholism is a method of neutralization of chemical waste using chemical alcohols and mono-ethanols.
    4. The simplest and cheapest way to destroy waste is the thermal method. As a result of the reaction, the chemical composition of the materials is completely destroyed, followed by their combustion.
    5. Thanks to the distillation method, it is possible to split waste to displace liquids from them that participated in the initial reactions. After such splitting, the liquids can be reused.
    6. The method of biological treatment of chemical waste has been poorly studied, it is used only in small factories.

  • Is the incineration of medical waste an acceptable method of disposal in accordance with the legislation? What methods and methods of neutralization (destruction) of medical waste are generally used? 21

    Methods of medical waste treatment

    In most countries that have ratified the Basel Convention of 1992, the rules and regulations for the disposal and transportation of medical waste are based on its provisions, which involves the use of technologies leading to the destruction of about 90% of medical waste and disinfection, followed by the disposal of the remaining 10%. At the same time, many countries, including Russia, still use the method of disposal in special landfills with preliminary disinfection for the disposal of most medical waste.

    In the modern world, the main methods of medical waste treatment are:

    Chemical disinfection

    Chemical disinfection is most often performed using chlorine-containing substances. Chemical disinfection is often combined with mechanical processes, such as grinding or dissolving, to ensure complete penetration of chemicals.

    Incineration using incinerators

    Incineration is a controlled process of incineration of medical waste in a special furnace (incinerator). Waste intended for incineration in an incinerator cannot be sorted, so all waste is completely destroyed.

    Steam sterilization under pressure and at a temperature of more than 100 ° C using autoclaves

    Autoclave is a device for steam sterilization under pressure and at a temperature of more than 100 °. The autoclave is used for sterilization of dressings, linen, tools, dishes for bacteriological laboratories, nutrient media for growing microorganisms, etc. Autoclaves can also be used to sterilize medical waste before disposal in a landfill.

    The principle of operation of the autoclave is based on an increase in the boiling point of water with increasing pressure.

    Medical waste that has been disinfected in an autoclave must be further processed - compressed, grinded or crushed, so that the waste is unidentifiable and cannot be reused for other purposes. After sterilization and compaction, medical waste can be combined with household waste and disposed of in a common landfill.

    Using microwaves

    The use of microwaves for disinfection of medical waste is one of the recent innovations in this field. Microwave processing can be carried out both stationary and on mobile objects. For this type of disinfection, the waste is usually pre-crushed, then mixed with water and exposed to microwave radiation. The heat and steam generated during processing ensure uniform heating of all waste and effectively neutralize all biological preparations. Shredding reduces the volume of waste by up to 80%, while recycled waste can be disposed of in a conventional landfill.

    An alternative method of sterilization of medical equipment, materials and medical waste is sterilization using ionizing, radioactive or infrared radiation

    The sterilization effect of ionizing radiation is the result of exposure to the metabolic processes of the cell, while radioactive and infrared radiation, high-frequency vibrations exert their bactericidal effect with the help of heat developed in the treated object. Not all medical waste can be sterilized in this way (some microorganisms are radiation resistant). The risk of personnel exposure, although minimal, is also a disadvantage of this method.

  • What Federal law regulates the rules for handling medical waste? 22

    At the moment, there is no separate federal law on medical waste in Russia, where the concept of "medical waste" would be clearly spelled out, rules for their collection, temporary storage, transportation, burial or destruction were contained, responsibility for the execution of each of the stages was determined, as well as measures applied in case of violations.

    The rules for the treatment of medical waste are regulated by sanitary rules and norms N2.1.7.2790-10 of December 12, 2010 "Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the treatment of medical waste".

    For more information, please call the toll-free number 8 (800) 555-59-12

  • What is more efficient, more profitable? Solid waste recycling or incineration? 23

    Recycling About 40-50% of MSW are subject to repeated processing with the help of special technological equipment. The list of valuable raw materials includes the following types of waste:

    • all types of metal
    • glass
    • polymers yarn
    • and fabric products, paper
    • tires, rubbers
    • old asphalt pavement
    • organic household and agricultural waste

    All of the above materials can act as secondary raw materials after the processing process. Then they gain a second life in the form of products used in various spheres of human life.

    Incineration is the most efficient way of disposal for all types of waste – solid, liquid and gaseous. It is carried out under the influence of extremely high temperatures exceeding the mark of 1000 ° C. The low-temperature combustion process is dangerous for the environment, as a result of which this method is being replaced by new technologies.

    Burial is one of the simplest and cheapest options for waste disposal. Burial can be carried out on specially allocated land plots - landfills, quarries. This method of garbage disposal is ineffective and unsafe for the environment.


    The prospects for generating income from the removal, storage, processing and incineration of garbage depend on their initial investments and the list of services provided. Only the collection and removal of solid waste on one unit of special equipment, which will regularly serve 6 - 8 points, can bring up to 6 thousand net profit per night, and 1 kilogram of solid waste in the cost of incineration costs is not more than 1.5 rubles. If there is not one machine, but several incineration plants, if there is at least one sorting line, it will be possible to process valuable scrap or at least just sort it, burn the "tails" after sorting, then the level of income from solid waste disposal activities will increase many times.

    In combination, several methods can give maximum efficiency and economic benefits.

    For more information, please call the toll-free number 8 (800) 555-59-12

If you have any questions, we will be happy to answer

Kuzminova Elizaveta
8-800-555-59-12 (111)
Denis Sergeevich
8-800-555-59-12 (121)
Abdullah Saeed Sallal
8-800-555-59-12 (116)